In terms of cost, heating and lighting represent half of the total energy costs of the hotels.
Lighting is one of the largest areas of electrical energy consumption in hotels, as in many other kinds of buildings. Depending on the category of hotel, lighting can account for 7% of total energy consumption and up to 40% of total electrical energy consumption.
Lighting must provide adequate levels of illumination for hotel activity and create a pleasant environment and a sense of comfort throughout the building.
Several types of energy efficiency lighting and affordable lighting technology exist, such as Compact fluorescent lights (CFL) and less powerful light emitting diodes (LED).
Only 20% of the energy for incandescent and halogen lights is converted to light; the remaining 80% is lost as heat. Efficient lights such as fluorescents, CFLs and LEDs are able to convert energy to light much more efficiently and with less lost through heat.
The lighting load in hotels that are mainly equipped with incandescent lamps can account for a significant part of their total electricity use. Thanks to important advances in lighting technology, energy-efficient alternatives are available for nearly all lighting applications.
The principal energy-efficient lighting options used in hotels include compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), fluorescent tube lamps and light emitting diodes (LEDs).
Compact fluorescent lamps: CFLs are direct replacements for incandescent bulbs and can therefore be installed in most light fixtures that are designed for incandescent bulbs.
The key characteristics of CFLs are:
Cost effectiveness: CFLs are expensive (typically € 5 to 10 /each) compared to incandescent bulbs, but will save a considerable amount of money when taking their life and wattage into account.
Service life: Good quality CFLs should last 8,000 to 10,000 hours, or about 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs. Thus, in addition to saving energy, the use of CFLs significantly reduces the need to purchase and install replacement lamps.
Cautions and comments:
Choose energy-certified products: in some countries, there are product certifications that indicate quality energy savings, such as the Energy label in Europe (as defined in Commission Directive 98/11/EC). Buying labelled products (e.g. lamps with class A of the EU Energy label) is a good way to be sure the hotel is investing in the latest high-performance equipment.
CFLs use ~70% less energy than incandescent bulbs for the same light output. CFLs also produce considerably less heat and so reduce air conditioning loads.